How to arrange an attic in a private house
When there is a need to expand the usable area of the house, the solution may be an attic. But what exactly a room according to the standards of regulation is considered an attic, how to properly equip and use it?
According to the building and sanitary standards is an attic space in which the height from the floor level to the intersection of the facade of the house with the plane of the roof is at least one and a half meters. The ceiling height in the attic should not be less than 2.5 m and more than 3 meters. A room that meets all of these requirements is called an attic.
Type of attic depends on the type of roofing structure, because it is the elements of the roof is formed by the upper part of the attic. The most common are the following types of attics:
- single-level outbuildings on consoles;
- one-level with a broken or gable roof;
- two-level with a complex configuration of the roof and supports.
The smallest usable area has a mansard under a gable roof. More convenient to create a mansard floor broken roof with four pitched planes arranged at different angles. Visible attic on the cantilevers is difficult to design and build, but it has a lot of space and you can put the usual vertical windows. Arrange a multilevel attic, as a rule, can only be combined with the house, that is, from scratch - it is structurally complex, requiring a competent calculation, the room.
PROS AND CONS OF THE ATTIC
Builders with regard to attics have a lot of questions. In the disadvantage of the attic often put:
- expensive - cheaper than a standard floor plus a loft;
- noisy when it rains;
- with the attic is warmer;
- beveled ceilings are ugly; a full floor is more respectable;
- not enough space, the roof "presses".
Indeed, in the construction of the attic will cost more than the attic and a full floor. But more often the difference is small. Another thing is that in the attic requires good ventilation, since in the summer it can be hot because of the heating of the roof and the small volume of the room. On this it will have to spend extra money.
As for the cold, the problem is solved by insulating all planes: floor, roof, gables. The most convenient is considered a thermal insulator in mats. It is placed on the waterproofing, and inside close the vapor barrier membrane and finishing materials. If the overlap allows, the floor is covered with a floating screed. But we must consider that the life of modern insulation is 20-40 years, and then it must be changed, which means that the entire "pie" must be replaced. Therefore, the attic is considered unrepaired.
Insulation will not save from street noise. In this case the only solution is the installation of sound-absorbing roofing materials - flexible, composite tiles or other similar materials. However, there are many people who even like to fall asleep under the sound of raindrops falling on the roof.
And even in spite of all the technical features of the attic, it is worth arguing about its "non-aesthetic", "uncomfortable" or "non-solidity". Worst of all, people often, having no idea about the technology of construction, proportions and design, take up the construction of the attic and its arrangement. And yet the attic can be not just comfortable to live in, but also stylish and functional.
How to use the attic efficiently?
Usable area of the attic directly depends on the slope of the roof slopes. The slope of 30-40° is considered optimal. Leading in terms of usable area of the hip roof - up to 90%. At the same time in such attics is a problem of good lighting and installation of windows. With a single or high gable roof difficulties "mastering" can cause a low wall, sometimes - half a meter high.
What rooms can be placed in the attic? There are no restrictions. It can be a bedroom, children's room, study or billiard room. Another thing is that for bedrooms or children's rooms the question of effective ventilation is particularly relevant. So if the ceilings in the attic are very low, there is no forced exhaust system and ventilation, it is not worth equipping such a room.
- Bedroom in the attic is protected from the noise in the house and the sound of footsteps past the room. Beveled ceiling does not interfere with the installation of the bed, the furniture is placed the most necessary, in the remaining space put the rest of the interior details.
- Cabinet, library or workshop in the attic will help in privacy. Even in a small area you can fit shelves for books, a small sofa and a desk.
- The living room in the attic must be equipped with furniture of non-standard forms - most of the usual modern items will not fit here. However, if space allows and there are many corners, even without custom furniture you can do without.
- The game room can be designed specifically for children, or it can become a gathering place for all family members. It is easy to make a playroom in the attic if you divide it into several zones. Zone of moving games, board games, video games, billiard room.
- With good soundproofing of the floor, a small gym can be located in the attic.
- Children's room in the attic in the country style. By arranging the sleeping places in two tiers it is possible to free up space for games.The approach to the arrangement of the nursery should be thorough. It is important to provide a safe staircase and windows.
- Dressing room - the most common solution to the use of attics. Storage options abound, including - open shelving and shelves, drawers, sliding designs.
WHAT WINDOWS TO PUT IN THE ATTIC?
Two types of windows are used in attics - sloping and vertical. Vertical windows are often placed in a special ledge in the roof - a so-called cuckoo with a vertical wall. They may be small in size and do not differ from the usual. Vertical windows give little light, even set in the gable.
Optimal on the penetration of light considered sloping windows, but they have features. Since these windows are placed in the slopes of the roof, to withstand the snow loads, the area of glass should not be more than 1.4 square meters. Because of the likelihood of heat loss, it is better to choose energy-saving windows (tempered glass filled with argon).
Aluminum frames lose a lot of heat, so they do not put them in the house. Choose wooden (with a waterproof coating of polyurethane) or metal-plastic. Metal-plastic windows are cheaper. With a modern selection of colors you can pick up a window for any style of room.
The number of insulating glass units depends on the region. The less of them, the colder the window, but less of a load on it. With regard to the mechanism of opening, then the sashes in the roof windows do rotary on the hinges with a friction brake for fixation in several positions. If you put swing window, it must be equipped with a pneumatic shock absorber to prevent slamming sash of the wind..
WHAT TO FINISH THE CEILING WITH?
Plasterboard - the most budgetary and practical option for finishing. The material can be mounted at any angle, it weighs little, has a smooth surface and can be covered with any finishing material wallpaper, paint, tiles. Sheets are easy to cut, and you do not have to lower the ceiling low to create expressive designs. In trapezoidal and semicircular recesses are placed lighting, spotlights, pendant chandeliers. It is better to use moisture-resistant and fireproof gypsum board.
Wooden boards have its own advantages:
- environmental friendliness;
- aesthetic appearance;
But its use is possible only when the walls of the room are also finished in wood. Felt will fit perfectly in the style of country, eco-style, Mediterranean, chebby-chic (painted in a light tone).
Euro linings and imitation beams cost a little more, but do not need additional treatment.
A coffered ceiling is made from a combination of wood, MDF, polyurethane and plasterboard. This type of finish imitates the cells of open overlapping beams. Quite an expensive option.
It is quite feasible to finish the ceiling with stretch panels. Such designs conceal irregularities, make it possible to construct a multilevel ceiling with graphic inserts and different types of lighting. The weight of the suspended ceilings is negligible, and the possibilities for their design are endless.
WHAT WITH FURNITURE?
If the attic has a small size, it is better to decorate it in the style of minimalism. In such rooms, compact closets, sofas without backrests, beds-transformers, shelves of original forms and open shelving units will organically look great. To visually expand the space suit mirrored surfaces, on the walls - pictures and collages.
Large attic is not limited by frames - any style is used here, including Romanesque, English, Empire, Baroque, providing for the scope and luxury. As a rule, all the furniture in such attics are made to order for an individual design project. Custom furniture will help to fill the corners with functional dressers, drawers, cabinets.
If you can find your approach to the construction and design of the attic, this additional floor may become the most comfortable and favorite place for you and your family. The main thing is to think through all the details, without rushing and stamps.