Staircases in a country house
A common mistake builders make is to order a prefabricated structure into an already built house. If calculations are not made in advance, it is difficult to fit even a simple structure into the opening. Therefore, it is better not to choose a staircase by a beautiful interior photo, and include it in the project at the stage of construction of the house.
TYPES OF INTERIOR STAIRCASES
All home staircases can be divided into two groups - spiral staircases and staircases by marches. The preference for one or the other type depends on the volume of interior space, its stylistic design and convenience for the occupants.
- Spiral staircases fit perfectly into the style of minimalism and classics. The form can be not only round, but also polygonal, or square. Such stairs are not attached to the walls, so they can be put even in the middle of the room. Note that the spiral staircase is more expensive than a straight staircase - because of the complexity of the work. In addition, take into account that it is difficult to ascend or descend. On this staircase will not go up with bulky furniture, it becomes a problem for the elderly.
- The marching staircase is characteristic of many styles: classic, Scandinavian, chalet and others. It requires more space. If unnecessarily massive design is not needed, put rotary with steps. Very miniature and easy looks cantilever staircase, the structure on bolts. The number of steps, their openness or closeness, the presence or absence of turns is determined by specific conditions.
ARRANGEMENT IN THE HOUSE
Based on the principle of rationality, the staircase is better to have as close to the geometric center of the house, in the hallway. From here you can get directly to the second floor without going through other rooms. The noise of footsteps on the stairs will not disturb the bedroom, living room or child's room and the length of communications for lighting will be optimal. The same applies to the exit on the second floor - it is better if it is located in a common hallway.
Constructive nuances of spiral staircases
Spiral staircases most often have a metal or wooden central column with steps in the form of a wedge. Rack is fixed in the ceiling between the floors and in the floor of the first floor. The steps are arranged in a circle, the narrow side to the post, on the outside of the steps are attached fencing elements.
How to calculate:
- At the site selected for installation, the center, the location of the post, is determined.
- Sum the height of the room and the floor (this is the length of the rack).
- The distance from the post to the site boundary is measured - the length of the steps is determined.
- For ease of movement the middle of the steps should be no less than 20 centimeters wide, and the widest part - no more than 42 centimeters.
- The height between the steps - from 15 to 25 centimeters.
To calculate the maximum width of the step use the formula for calculating the circumference length of the whole staircase (2 * 3,14 * r, where r - span width in mm), and the obtained result is divided by the number of steps in the span. So the design will turn out without voids.
Features of the marching staircases.
Marched staircases can have multiple flights of stairs, be open or closed, twisting and circular.
- Open designs have no treads. This is convenient if the tread (the step itself) is not wide enough.
- On the staircase with a turn instead of a platform between the steps are often put turning steps.
In the design of the marching staircase is of particular importance the calculation of the size of steps and tread (or the distance between them).
- Step width should be about 30 cm. A wider step will "eat up" space, and the slope of the staircase will need to increase. Narrower is dangerous for walking, the foot on it can move out.
- The optimum distance between steps - 20 centimeters. It must remain the same throughout the entire staircase!
Ideally, the sum of the width of the step and the height of the tread, multiplied by 2, should turn out the average length of a human step - 60-65 cm. The most comfortable is considered an angle of inclination of 30-40 degrees. Sometimes it increases to 50 degrees, but the descent on such a staircase is uncomfortable.
The width of the span of stairs is determined individually, but it is better if it will be easy for two people - that is, 100-150 cm. If the figure is greater, in the middle of the steps are reinforced.
Side beams serve as supports for the steps. Steps in them can be fixed by overlay (stringers with triangular cavities) or mortise (stringer - a bar with holes cut out with holes).
Guardrails - an element that combines safety and stylistic design of the entire staircase. The height - at least 80 centimeters. The distance between the balusters, if there are children in the cottage - up to 12 centimeters. Fasten fences as firmly as possible - for example, wooden fences are fixed with self-tapping screws with additional gluing of parts.
Guard rails are required, starting with 1 meter high stairs.
In the staircase is better not to do more than 17 steps and less than 3. The most convenient would be a march with an odd number of steps - so that people would step on the last step with the same foot that was on the first.
THE STAIRS ON BOLTS
Invention of rational Germans became popular in Russia. Design stairs on bolts suggests fixing the steps directly to the wall on the one hand and to the railing post - on the other. Installation Bolzovoy design possible only when the load-bearing wall is strong enough, so for a frame wooden house, for example, it is not suitable.
Despite the visual lightness, such a staircase with proper calculation and installation can withstand loads up to a ton! Rules for calculating the design of approximately the same as the marching staircase. In addition, ready-made kits are on sale.
Wood - a classic, combined primarily with a wooden house. Worst of all, coniferous wood endures constant use, better - oak, beech, ash and other hardwoods. Features, which should have wood for stairs:
- moisture of no more than 8%;
- all parts must be glued, otherwise they will crack.
What to consider when choosing wooden stairs:
- The material is demanding to the humidity of the air, a humidifier is needed.
- Underfloor heating or space heaters should be at least 0,5m away from the stairs.
Metal is used for the stairs as a whole and for individual elements. Especially popular forged metal, thanks to which the entire structure is durable. It also plays the role of decorative ornamentation.
Glass is used less often, and if the staircase and is made of this material, the glass should be tempered, reinforced with a film (triplex). Connecting elements and the base of the glass stairs are made of metal.
THE BASICS OF STAIR SAFETY
The smooth surface of the steps becomes a source of danger for the occupants of the house. Here are a few options to make them safe:
- On the edge of the step install corners of galvanized steel or aluminum profile with a rubber strip;
- the steps are covered with a carpet (with a carpet pad and a rubber base);
- each step is placed a separate rubber, plastic, silicone or carpet mat, it is fastened with screws with a decorative overlay;
- wooden steps are coated with varnish mixed with fine-grained quartz sand;
- stone steps (from sandstone, basalt, granite) are covered with special antislip solutions.